心理學與《聖經》:神學反省 (一)

PSYCHOLOGY AND THE BIBLE: Some Theological Reflections

 作者﹕林慈信牧師

I. 對非基督教思想的深層剖析

1. 基督教思想。基督徒思想的範圍包括:認識上帝,認識自己,認識世界。什麼是「知識」?不僅是理性追求事實,不僅是哲學的猜測。討上帝喜悅的知識是「順服守約」 (Covenant obedience)。(參:John M. Frame的著作。)我們必須認識上帝,自己,與世界;我們認知的方法(知識的科學)和對知識的解釋(知識的藝術)都必須遵從上帝的話。(參:Richard Pratt,《將人的心意奪回》。)

Christian Thought. The scope of Christian thought includes knowledge of God, knowledge of self, and knowledge of the world. What is knowledge? Not just intellectual pursuit of facts; not just philosophical speculation. Knowledge which pleases God is covenant obedience. (John M. Frame, The Doctrine of the Knowledge of God; The Doctrine of God.) We must know God, ourselves, and the world in such a way that we obey and submit to his Word, both in our method (science) and in our interpretation (art). (Richard Pratt, Every Thought Captive.)


2. 每一個人的思想,都來自一些「前提」,或「世界觀」。什麼是世界觀?可以說是:我們「心中的堅持」。例如:上帝存在嗎?人是什麼?人的問題來自哪堙H解決人的問題的方案來自哪堙H等等。

All mans thought is based on presuppositions, or his worldview. A worldview is our heart commitment: What is man? Where do mans problems and needs come from? Where do solutions to problems come from?


3. 非基督徒的思想的「心中堅持」:非基督徒心中堅持「自主」。人堅持自己是離開上帝獨立的,自主的。自從人犯罪墮落以來,人拒絕順服在上帝的主權之下。人是自己的律法(auto - 自己,nomos - 律。)「自主」是所有人犯罪以來(非基督教)思想的核心原則,或「前提」,或「心中的堅持」。現代期的思想文化尤其是如此(1500-1980)。(參:《前車可鑒》;《將人的心意奪回》。)

The heart commitment of non-Christian thought: autonomy. Man is committed to be independent, autonomous from God. Since man sinned and fall, he refuses to submit under Gods authority. He is his own law (auto – nomos), his own authority. Autonomy has been the most fundamental principle, the heart commitment, or the presupposition in all non-Christian thought ever since the Garden of Eden, and especially in modern thought and culture (1500-1980). (Francis Schaeffer, How Should We Then Live; Pratt.)


4. 自從弗來伊德以來,心理學接受了康德的世界觀,作為它「心中的堅持」。康德:人不可能透過科學與理性認識絕對真理;理性與科學只可能認識事物的外表。至于上帝,永生,愛,自由意志等宗教、倫理上的真理,只能「超越」理性與科學來認識。因此,心理學的世界觀(前提,心中堅持)包括:自然主義(否認超自然的存在),唯物主義(否認靈魂與上帝的存在),決定主義(否認上帝與人的自由作為事物的成因),進化論(否認創造),邏輯實證主義(否認上帝啟示在知識和方法論上的權威),相對主義(否認絕對真理的存在)。

Bakers Dictionary of Psychology and Counseling。)Psychology since Sigmund Freud has absorbed the post-Kantian heart commitment. Immanuel Kant: Man cannot know (absolute) truth through science and reason. Science and reason can only know the outward of things. Religious and ethical truth (God, eternal life, love, free will) is known beyond science and reason. Thus, psychologys presuppositions include: naturalism (denying the supernatural), materialism (denying the soul and Gods existence), determinism (denying Gods and mans freedom as causes), evolution (denying creation), logical positivism (denying the authority of Gods Word as method in knowledge), relativism (denying the existence of absolute truth) and humanism (denying Gods sovereignty in everything), according to Bakers Dictionary of Psychology and Counseling.


5. 在現代期之前,和在目前的「後現代」時期,人堅持「新紀元運動」的哲學前提;我們稱它為「一元論」。一元論相信:上帝就是我,我就是上帝;我就是宇宙,宇宙就是我;上帝就是宇宙,宇宙就是上帝。這是「異教」的「心中堅持」。自從古代中西文化中就流行。(參:張逸萍,《新紀元的陷阱》;www.cwipp.org 。)

Both in the pre-modern postmodern period, man holds to the heart commitment of New Age philosophy, which is monism. Monism believes: God = me, I = God; I = the world, the world = me; God = the world, the world = God. This is the heart of the ancient / postmodern pagan religion. (Peter Jones, Spirit Wars. www.cwipp.org.)


6. 注:一元論的相反詞不是二元論或三元論!與一元論相反的是《聖經》的世界觀:(一)上帝就是上帝,上帝是創造宇宙的主;(二)人與宇宙都是上帝所創造的;(三)創造主與被造物之間有著絕對的區分。(參:範泰爾的著作。)

Note. The opposite of monism is not dualism! The opposite of monism is the Bibles view of the world: (a) God is God, God is creator of the universe; (b) man and the universe are created by God; (c) there is an absolute distinction between the Creator and all creation. (Cf. The works of Cornelius Van Til.)


II. 心理學是什麼?

1. 心理學從一種「科學」(其實是「社會科學」,「行為科學」,直接了當說是「偽科學」),演變成為「新紀元哲學與宗教(即:異教)」的最佳推銷員團隊。其實,「新紀元」的世界觀,早在早期心理學理論中就找得到。

Psychology evolved from a science (a social science, a behavioral science, or a pseudo-science) to an eager sales force for New Age philosophy. But the New Age worldview actually predates the beginning of psychology.


2. 心理學是一種「偽科學」。科學竭力觀察事實,按照一些理論來解釋所觀察的事實。所分析的事實應該是可以重複的,可以證實的。心理學不是這樣的。心理學中不少的定義和解釋都非常主觀。(注:不論是傳統科學或偽科學,都來自人自主的「前提」。)

Psychology is a pseudo-science. Science observes data according to a theory which seeks to interpret the data. The data analyzed should be repeatable and verifiable. Psychologys definitions, data and explanations are often subjective. (Note: Whether it is conventional science or pseudo-science, man is committed to his own autonomy, unless science is redeemed and rebuilt with biblical presuppositions.)


3. 心理學從「現代」(康德後;堅持人的自主,推翻上帝的主權與祂設立的權威),到「後現代」。不過,「後現代」在「現代」之前就有了。(參:張逸萍博士的著作:
www.chinesechristiandiscernment.net; www.chinesebiblicalcounseling.net。)

Psychology evolved from being modern (post-Kantian, asserting mans autonomy over against God and all God-ordained authority) to postmodern (monism). But the postmodern actually pre-dates the modern. (Lois Chan, Unholy Alliance. www.chinesechristiandiscernment.net; www.chinesebiblicalcounseling.net.)


4. 幾位心理學理論大師:弗來伊德(「心理分析」),容格(異教徒),Alfred Adler (「認知心理學」),羅傑斯(人本主義;「非指引式」的,「案主中心」的治療),Eric Fromm(修正弗來伊德的人本主義)。

Major theorists in the history of psychology: Sigmund Freund (psychoanalysis), Carl Jung, Alfred Adler (cognitive psychology), Carl Rogers (non-directive, client-centered therapy), and Eric Fromm.


5. 一些所謂「基督教輔導」的理論家:
Gary Collins; James Dobson

Some names of Christian counseling theorists: Gary Collins, James Dobson.


6. 《聖經》輔導學與所謂「基督教輔導學采取完全不同的前提(心中堅持)。

Over against secular psychology and Christian counseling is biblical counseling. (www.nanc.org; www.timelesstexts.org; www.ccef.org.)



III. 輔導是什麼?

1. 輔導可以「非指引式」嗎?非指引的輔導等于非輔導的輔導!(「非指引輔導」這個觀念來自羅傑斯,他是一個人本主義者;這觀念卻被基督徒輔導員與輔導中心廣泛使用。)

Can counseling be really non-directive? Non-directive counseling is non-counseling counseling! (The idea of non-directive counseling comes from Carl Rogers, a humanist, and is very commonly adopted by Christian counseling and counseling centers.)


2. 「心理病」的神話。什麼是「疾病」?是可以觀察,診斷,開藥或開刀的問題。輔導呢?輔導是「講話」。(這種對心理學輔導的批評,往往來自無神論者,猶太教徒,不僅僅來自信仰保守,支持《聖經》輔導的基督徒!)耶穌講到人「有病」時,當然是喻意的。

The myth of mental illness: what is illness? It is when you can observe a problem, prescribe medicine or do surgery. Counseling is just talk! (This critique of psychological counseling is raised not only by conservative Christians, but also secular writers, including Jews and atheists!) Of course, Jesus speaks of illness as a metaphor.


3. 是,輔導是「講話」,是帶有道德觀的講話。世俗的心理輔導基于世俗的理論,它是不合《聖經》的倫理。

Counseling is talk; it is talk with an ethical perspective. Secular psychological counseling, based on secular theories, is non-biblical ethics.


4. 非《聖經》輔導的目標:心理平衡(弗來伊德),「自尊」,「自我接納」,或含糊不清的所謂「心理健康」。Non-biblical counselings goals: equilibrium (Freud), self-esteem,” “self-acceptance, or mental health (whatever that means).
5. 《聖經》輔導的目標來自《提摩太後書》316-17:「教訓,督責,使人歸正,教導人學義」。目標:幫助人過有紀律的生活,遵從上帝的話,結出聖靈的果子。

Biblical counseling is an application of (obedience to) II Tim. 3:16-17: teaching, reproof, correction, and training in righteousness. The goal: that men and women live disciplined lives, obey Gods Word, and bear the fruit of the Spirit.



IV. 事情的成因與影響因素


1. 三十多年來,亞當斯被誣告、曲解。基督教心理學家說亞當斯認為人的問題都來自罪,沒有身體上的因素影響他。其實從《成功的輔導》面世以來(目前中譯本名《聖靈的勸戒》,中華展望出版),亞當斯一直堅持,有身體而來的因素!(亞當斯的網站:
www.timelesstexts.com。)

For 30+ years, Jay E. Adams has been misquoted and maligned for saying that all counseling problems are due to sin; there are no physical factors involved. This cannot be further from the truth! From his first book, Competent to Counsel, he has said that there are factors related to the human body. (Adams website: www.timelesstexts.com .)


2. 《聖經》輔導運動有醫生和精神科醫生參與,讀者可參考他們的著作。

Works by physicians and psychiatrists who have joined the Biblical counseling movement: Robert
Smith, A Christian Counselors Medical Desk Reference; Payne, The Healing of Modern Medicine; and Gary Almy, How Christian is Christian Counseling?.


3. 顯然地,家庭是影響行為的重要因素,可是它不是唯一因素。這因素(包括傷害),靠基督的能力絕對可以勝過!還有其他的因素,如:遺傳,成年的經驗,和身體(大腦,神經)等。(參:Edward Welch,《都是腦神經惹的禍?》。)

The family, obviously, is an important influence on behavior; but it is not the only influence. Certainly, it is an influence (injury) which Christs power can overcome! Other factors: heredity, adult experiences, and the body/brain. (Cf. Ed Welch, Blame It On the Brain?)


4. 這些因素包括整個宇宙:(一)人的身體;(二)靈界(魔鬼邪靈);(三)物質世界;(四)人的靈魂(屬靈、行為因素)。一切都由上帝的護理掌管。

These factors are as wide as the universe, which includes: (a) mans body; (b) the spiritual realm (of Satan and the demons); (c) the physical universe; and (d) mans soul (spiritual = behavioral factors). All are under Gods sovereign control (under his providence).


5. 我們應該如何研究這些因素?我們必須順服上帝的普遍啟示與《聖經》啟示,來建立我們的方法論。(參:範泰爾的著作;中華展望護教學講義與錄音。)我們手上既然有《聖經》的全部(66卷),我們必須順服《聖經》來研究(一)我們的身體,(二)我們的靈魂(信仰,行為),(三)物質世界,(四)人類,(五)靈界;和(當然)(六)我們對上帝的認識。即是:《聖經》在(一)信仰,(二)生活,(三)曆史,(四科學的事上,都是無謬,無誤,我們絕對最高的權威。

But how should we study all these factors? We must build our method based on obedience to both general revelation and special revelation (the Bible). (Cf. Cornelius Van Tils works, www.reformed.org. Also: China Horizons apologetics lecture notes and audio.) Since we do have 66 books of the Bible in our hands, we must submit to the Bible as the highest authority for our study of (a) our bodies, (b) our souls, (c) the physical universe, (d) mankind, and (e) the spiritual realm – and of course, in our knowledge of God himself. I.e.: the Bible is inerrant, infallible and our highest authority in matters of (a) faith, (b) conduct, (c) history, and (d) science. (Cf. Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy, 1978; John M. Frame, The Doctrine of the Knowledge of God.)



V. 普遍啟示與心理學

1. 「普遍啟示」是指什麼?《羅馬書》1201918;《詩篇》191-4。上帝在一人心(思想)中和(二)受造之物已經自我啟示,清清楚楚,叫人無可推諉。

What is general revelation? Romans 1:20, 19, 18. Psalm 19:1-4. God has revealed himself to all mankind: (a) in the human mind/heart, and (b) through the created universe. He reveals himself clearly, so that man is without excuse.


2. 人在心靈的深處壓抑、阻擋這啟示,雖然他知道上帝是創造主,理當敬畏祂。

Man knows deep down in his soul that God is the Creator and Lord of the universe; but man suppresses this revelation.


3. 「普遍啟示」的目的不是教導人如何得永生,而是叫他無可推諉,應當敬畏上帝。

The purpose of general revelation is not to teach man how he can have eternal life, but to make him without excuse – to acknowledge, obey and worship God.


4. 一切的文化:哲學,心理學,藝術,科學,宗教等,都是(有罪的)人類對上帝普遍啟示的回應。文化不是啟示!連腳印(影子)都不是!

All culture – philosophy, psychology, art, science, and religion, etc.– is the response by (sinful) men and women to Gods general revelation. Culture is not revelation! Not even a footprint/shadow of it!


5. 上帝的普遍啟示是從上而下的,從上帝而來(羅118-20),是「無言無語,也無聲音可聽」(詩19)。人對普遍啟示的回應(包括心理學)是從下而上的;從人發出。兩者不可混為一談!

Gods general revelation is top-down; it comes from God (Rom. 1:18-20). It is without words (Psalm 19). Mans response to revelation (culture, which includes psychology) is bottom-up; it comes from man. The two are not the same!


6. 人類既已墮落,這回應(文化)就在核心堅持人的自主,堅持「一元論」,就是保羅所稱的「世上的小學」。世俗的文化(包括心理學)必然與上帝的啟示鬥爭。

Since mankind has fallen, this response is what Paul calls the elementary things of this world. It is committed to autonomy of man, and to monism. Secular culture (including psychology) inevitably battles against Gods Word.


7. 稱心理學的研究成果(或哲學)為「普遍啟示」是重要的錯誤。(例如:Gary Collins。)

It is a major error to say that the insights of psychology (and philosophy, etc.) are general revelation (e.g. Gary Collins).



VI. 人的道德責任(自由意志,人是道德責任者)


1. 世俗心理學其中一項重要錯誤(異端),是把人基本上(甚至只)視為受害者。所謂「基督教輔導」極力推行此觀念。這樣,人的責任就消除;同時人的尊嚴,和改變生命(解決問題)的盼望也泡湯。美國刺殺甘乃迪總統(19631122日)的被告者,被心理學家解釋為是家庭傷害的受害者。在郵包中寄炸彈的被告者同樣被解釋為家庭的受害者。這樣,社會秩序也瓦解。今天美國人口的百分之一是監犯。(2008年三月的報導。)

A major error/heresy of secular psychology (which so-called Christian counseling has borrowed enthusiastically), is to treat man fundamentally (only) as a victim. This takes away responsibility from the counselee, therefore it takes away dignity, and it takes away hope to change ones life (to solve ones problem). In the United States, famous criminals e.g. Lee Oswald (who assassinated John F. Kennedy) and the Unabomber, have been analyzed by psychologists as having been injured by family members, early in their lives. This explains their criminal behavior. This takes away hope for social order! 1% of the USA population is in prison today (March 2008).


2. 上帝創造人時,給人一個」意志「。有人喜歡稱此為「自由意志」,有些神學家稱它為「道德責任性」。上帝造人作一位有限的被造物,因此人的自由是有限的。

God created man with a will. Some prefer to call it free will; others call this mans moral agency. God created man as a finite being, therefore his freedom is finite (limited).


3. 《創世記》第二章教導:無限的上帝創造了有限的人,賜人有限的、可是真的自由選擇。這自由選擇附有道德責任;人必須為自己一切思想行為承擔後果。上帝在一個特定的處境婼蝷H此「選擇兼責任」:在此處境,上帝已創造了一切,也向人曉諭;上帝已向人講解祂的旨意和吩咐。

Genesis chapter 2 teaches that: An infinite God created finite man, and gave him finite, but real free choice. This choice comes with moral responsibility; man must bear all consequences of his thoughts and actions. God gave this freedom-plus-responsibility to man in a context (place) in which he has created all things, and he has spoken to man (he has given man his will and his commands).


4. 人為自己的一切行為負責。人不應只問:「誰傷害過我?」而要問:「我傷害過誰?」還有:「我如何回應別人在我身上造成的傷害?我的回應有罪嗎?」我們須為自己的回應負責。

Man is responsible for his actions. He should not only ask: Who has injured me? He needs to ask: Whom have I injured?” “How did I respond to other peoples injuring me? Did I respond in a sinful way? We are responsible for our responses.


5. 人是「從內心發出」一切思想、行為的。這就是說人有「意志」的意思。可是人的心墮落了,非常邪惡。人須要換一個心,取得新心,才有能力遵從上帝的吩咐來回應別人的行為(對自己的傷害,等)。

Man acts out of his heart. This is what we mean when we say that man has a will. But mans heart is fallen and utterly wicked. Man needs his heart to be changed in order to act, to respond to other peoples actions (e.g. hurts against myself), in the way which God has commanded.



VII. 從《聖經》看家庭


1. 上帝在創造世界時設立了三個制度:婚姻家庭;工作文化,與安息敬拜。因此,人還沒有犯罪之前,家庭制度就存在了。

God established the family as one of 3 institutions when he created the world. (The other 2 are: work/culture, and rest/worship.) Therefore, the family existed as an institution ordained by God before man sinned.


2. 上帝的旨意是:家庭是祂立約的對象,是「約民」的基本單位。約堛漱H,都是個人,也是家庭的成員,都應順服,敬拜,記敬畏,愛上帝。上帝的律法(話語),應該在家庭中宣講,教導。(單身的應被包括在教會的眾家庭和大家庭堙C)

God intends the family to be a covenant unit. Men and women, as individuals, and as family members, should obey God, worship him, fear him, and love him. The family is where Gods covenant-word (law) is to be proclaimed and taught. (Singles should be included in the several families of the church, or in the large family which is the church.)


3. 上帝在家庭堻]立了權威結構。丈夫,父親應該帶領家人順服,敬畏,敬拜,愛上帝。

God has also established authority structures in the family. The husband/father is to lead the family to obey, fear, worship, and love God.


4. 上帝願意賜福給信徒的家庭(舊約,新約時期都是如此)。在上帝的約中有一些咒詛(特別限制在敬拜偶像的人身上)。基督來,勝過一切的罪和咒詛。

God intends to bless the families of believers, both in the Old Testament and in the New. Within this covenant structure of blessing, there are curses (especially limited to idol worship). But Christ came to triumph over sin and sins curse.


5. 我們對上帝的認識(得救),是否會因家庭的傷害有負面影響?會的,若還沒有完全信靠上帝的話或聖靈在我們身上的工作的話。但若順服上帝的話與上帝的靈,這些都能勝過,變為感恩與喜樂。

Can our knowledge of God (our salvation and sanctification) be negatively influenced by the injuries which our family members incurred on us? Yes, if we do not wholly trust Gods Word and wholly submit to the Holy Spirits work in our lives. But if we do, these can be overcome with thanksgiving and joy.


6. 世俗心理學(弗來伊德起)損害了教會與社會秩序,因往往破壞上帝話語的權威,和上帝設立的權威。

Secular psychology (beginning with Freud) has damaged church and society by tearing down the authority of Gods Word and the authority-structures which God has ordained, e.g. the authority of God Word as taught by the head of the household.


7. 世俗心理學對「性革命」作了重要的貢獻,破壞婚姻的聖潔,以西方社會開始推動淫亂和同性戀;換言之,推翻上帝所設立的制度與權柄,破壞人生與人際關系。(不過我們若記得,心理學的前提包括自然主義:否認超自然事情;進化論:否認創造;相對主義:否認宇宙有絕對真理;和人本主義:否認上帝的主權,就不足為奇了。)

Secular psychology has largely contributed to the sexual revolution which destroyed the sanctity of sex in marriage, and promoted promiscuity and homosexuality, beginning with western societies. In other words, it led to the destruction of God-ordained structures of life and relationships. (This is perfectly understandable if we understand that secular psychology is based on naturalism, evolution, relativism, humanism etc.!)

 

 

 

 

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