心理学与《圣经》﹕神学反省(一)

PSYCHOLOGY AND THE BIBLE: Some Theological Reflections

作者:林慈信牧师

 

I. 对非基督教思想的深层剖析

1. 基督教思想。基督徒思想的范围包括﹕认识上帝,认识自己,认识世界。什么是「知识」?不仅是理性追求事实,不仅是哲学的猜测。讨上帝喜悦的知识是「顺服守约」 (Covenant obedience)。(参﹕John M. Frame的著作。)我们必须认识上帝,自己,与世界;我们认知的方法(知识的科学)和对知识的解释(知识的艺术)都必须遵从上帝的话。(参﹕Richard Pratt,《将人的心意夺回》。)

Christian Thought. The scope of Christian thought includes knowledge of God, knowledge of self, and knowledge of the world. What is knowledge? Not just intellectual pursuit of facts; not just philosophical speculation. Knowledge which pleases God is covenant obedience. (John M. Frame, The Doctrine of the Knowledge of God; The Doctrine of God.) We must know God, ourselves, and the world in such a way that we obey and submit to his Word, both in our method (science) and in our interpretation (art). (Richard Pratt, Every Thought Captive.)


2. 每一个人的思想,都来自一些「前提」,或「世界观」。什么是世界观?可以说是﹕我们「心中的坚持」。例如﹕上帝存在吗?人是什么?人的问题来自哪里?解决人的问题的方案来自哪里?等等。

All mans thought is based on presuppositions, or his worldview. A worldview is our heart commitment: What is man? Where do mans problems and needs come from? Where do solutions to problems come from?


3. 非基督徒的思想的「心中坚持」﹕非基督徒心中坚持「自主」。人坚持自己是离开上帝独立的,自主的。自从人犯罪堕落以来,人拒绝顺服在上帝的主权之下。人是自己的律法(auto - 自己,nomos - 律。)「自主」是所有人犯罪以来(非基督教)思想的核心原则,或「前提」,或「心中的坚持」。现代期的思想文化尤其是如此(1500-1980)。(参﹕《前车可鉴》;《将人的心意夺回》。)

The heart commitment of non-Christian thought: autonomy. Man is committed to be independent, autonomous from God. Since man sinned and fall, he refuses to submit under Gods authority. He is his own law (auto nomos), his own authority. Autonomy has been the most fundamental principle, the heart commitment, or the presupposition in all non-Christian thought ever since the Garden of Eden, and especially in modern thought and culture (1500-1980). (Francis Schaeffer, How Should We Then Live; Pratt.)


4. 自从弗来伊德以来,心理学接受了康德的世界观,作为它「心中的坚持」。康德﹕人不可能透过科学与理性认识绝对真理;理性与科学只可能认识事物的外表。至于上帝,永生,爱,自由意志等宗教、伦理上的真理,只能「超越」理性与科学来认识。因此,心理学的世界观(前提,心中坚持)包括﹕自然主义(否认超自然的存在),唯物主义(否认灵魂与上帝的存在),决定主义(否认上帝与人的自由作为事物的成因),进化论(否认创造),逻辑实证主义(否认上帝启示在知识和方法论上的权威),相对主义(否认绝对真理的存在)。

Bakers Dictionary of Psychology and Counseling。)Psychology since Sigmund Freud has absorbed the post-Kantian heart commitment. Immanuel Kant: Man cannot know (absolute) truth through science and reason. Science and reason can only know the outward of things. Religious and ethical truth (God, eternal life, love, free will) is known beyond science and reason. Thus, psychologys presuppositions include: naturalism (denying the supernatural), materialism (denying the soul and Gods existence), determinism (denying Gods and mans freedom as causes), evolution (denying creation), logical positivism (denying the authority of Gods Word as method in knowledge), relativism (denying the existence of absolute truth) and humanism (denying Gods sovereignty in everything), according to Bakers Dictionary of Psychology and Counseling.


5. 在现代期之前,和在目前的「后现代」时期,人坚持「新纪元运动」的哲学前提;我们称它为「一元论」。一元论相信﹕上帝就是我,我就是上帝;我就是宇宙,宇宙就是我;上帝就是宇宙,宇宙就是上帝。这是「异教」的「心中坚持」。自从古代中西文化中就流行。(参﹕张逸萍,《新纪元的陷阱》;www.cwipp.org 。)

Both in the pre-modern postmodern period, man holds to the heart commitment of New Age philosophy, which is monism. Monism believes: God = me, I = God; I = the world, the world = me; God = the world, the world = God. This is the heart of the ancient / postmodern pagan religion. (Peter Jones, Spirit Wars. www.cwipp.org.)


6. 注﹕一元论的相反词不是二元论或三元论!与一元论相反的是《圣经》的世界观﹕(一)上帝就是上帝,上帝是创造宇宙的主;(二)人与宇宙都是上帝所创造的;(三)创造主与被造物之间有着绝对的区分。(参﹕范泰尔的著作。)

Note. The opposite of monism is not dualism! The opposite of monism is the Bibles view of the world: (a) God is God, God is creator of the universe; (b) man and the universe are created by God; (c) there is an absolute distinction between the Creator and all creation. (Cf. The works of Cornelius Van Til.)


II. 心理学是什么?

1. 心理学从一种「科学」(其实是「社会科学」,「行为科学」,直接了当说是「伪科学」),演变成为「新纪元哲学与宗教(即﹕异教)」的最佳推销员团队。其实,「新纪元」的世界观,早在早期心理学理论中就找得到。

Psychology evolved from a science (a social science, a behavioral science, or a pseudo-science) to an eager sales force for New Age philosophy. But the New Age worldview actually predates the beginning of psychology.


2. 心理学是一种「伪科学」。科学竭力观察事实,按照一些理论来解释所观察的事实。所分析的事实应该是可以重复的,可以证实的。心理学不是这样的。心理学中不少的定义和解释都非常主观。(注﹕不论是传统科学或伪科学,都来自人自主的「前提」。)

Psychology is a pseudo-science. Science observes data according to a theory which seeks to interpret the data. The data analyzed should be repeatable and verifiable. Psychologys definitions, data and explanations are often subjective. (Note: Whether it is conventional science or pseudo-science, man is committed to his own autonomy, unless science is redeemed and rebuilt with biblical presuppositions.)


3. 心理学从「现代」(康德后;坚持人的自主,推翻上帝的主权与祂设立的权威),到「后现代」。不过,「后现代」在「现代」之前就有了。(参﹕张逸萍博士的著作﹕
www.chinesechristiandiscernment.net; www.chinesebiblicalcounseling.net。)

Psychology evolved from being modern (post-Kantian, asserting mans autonomy over against God and all God-ordained authority) to postmodern (monism). But the postmodern actually pre-dates the modern. (Lois Chan, Unholy Alliance. www.chinesechristiandiscernment.net; www.chinesebiblicalcounseling.net.)


4. 几位心理学理论大师﹕弗来伊德(「心理分析」),容格(异教徒),Alfred Adler (「认知心理学」),罗杰斯(人本主义;「非指引式」的,「案主中心」的治疗),Eric Fromm(修正弗来伊德的人本主义)。

Major theorists in the history of psychology: Sigmund Freund (psychoanalysis), Carl Jung, Alfred Adler (cognitive psychology), Carl Rogers (non-directive, client-centered therapy), and Eric Fromm.


5. 一些所谓「基督教辅导」的理论家﹕
Gary Collins; James DobsonSome names of Christian counseling theorists: Gary Collins, James Dobson.


6. 《圣经》辅导学与所谓「基督教辅导学采取完全不同的前提(心中坚持)。

Over against secular psychology and Christian counseling is biblical counseling. (www.nanc.org; www.timelesstexts.org; www.ccef.org.)



III. 辅导是什么?

1. 辅导可以「非指引式」吗?非指引的辅导等于非辅导的辅导!(「非指引辅导」这个观念来自罗杰斯,他是一个人本主义者;这观念却被基督徒辅导员与辅导中心广泛使用。)

Can counseling be really non-directive? Non-directive counseling is non-counseling counseling! (The idea of non-directive counseling comes from Carl Rogers, a humanist, and is very commonly adopted by Christian counseling and counseling centers.)


2. 「心理病」的神话。什么是「疾病」?是可以观察,诊断,开药或开刀的问题。辅导呢?辅导是「讲话」。(这种对心理学辅导的批评,往往来自无神论者,犹太教徒,不仅仅来自信仰保守,支持《圣经》辅导的基督徒!)耶稣讲到人「有病」时,当然是喻意的。

The myth of mental illness: what is illness? It is when you can observe a problem, prescribe medicine or do surgery. Counseling is just talk! (This critique of psychological counseling is raised not only by conservative Christians, but also secular writers, including Jews and atheists!) Of course, Jesus speaks of illness as a metaphor.


3. 是,辅导是「讲话」,是带有道德观的讲话。世俗的心理辅导基于世俗的理论,它是不合《圣经》的伦理。

Counseling is talk; it is talk with an ethical perspective. Secular psychological counseling, based on secular theories, is non-biblical ethics.


4. 非《圣经》辅导的目标﹕心理平衡(弗来伊德),「自尊」,「自我接纳」,或含糊不清的所谓「心理健康」。

Non-biblical counselings goals: equilibrium (Freud), self-esteem,” “self-acceptance, or mental health (whatever that means).


5. 《圣经》辅导的目标来自《提摩太后书》316-17﹕「教训,督责,使人归正,教导人学义」。目标﹕帮助人过有纪律的生活,遵从上帝的话,结出圣灵的果子。

Biblical counseling is an application of (obedience to) II Tim. 3:16-17: teaching, reproof, correction, and training in righteousness. The goal: that men and women live disciplined lives, obey Gods Word, and bear the fruit of the Spirit.



IV. 事情的成因与影响因素

1. 三十多年来,亚当斯被诬告、曲解。基督教心理学家说亚当斯认为人的问题都来自罪,没有身体上的因素影响他。其实从《成功的辅导》面世以来(目前中译本名《圣灵的劝戒》,中华展望出版),亚当斯一直坚持,有身体而来的因素!(亚当斯的网站﹕

访问网址超出本站范围,不能确定是否安全
www.timelesstexts.com。)

For 30+ years, Jay E. Adams has been misquoted and maligned for saying that all counseling problems are due to sin; there are no physical factors involved. This cannot be further from the truth! From his first book, Competent to Counsel, he has said that there are factors related to the human body. (Adams website: www.timelesstexts.com .)


2. 《圣经》辅导运动有医生和精神科医生参与,读者可参考他们的著作。

Works by physicians and psychiatrists who have joined the Biblical counseling movement: Robert
Smith, A Christian Counselors Medical Desk Reference; Payne, The Healing of Modern Medicine; and Gary Almy, How Christian is Christian Counseling?.


3. 显然地,家庭是影响行为的重要因素,可是它不是唯一因素。这因素(包括伤害),靠基督的能力绝对可以胜过!还有其他的因素,如﹕遗传,成年的经验,和身体(大脑,神经)等。(参﹕Edward Welch,《都是脑神经惹的祸?》。)

The family, obviously, is an important influence on behavior; but it is not the only influence. Certainly, it is an influence (injury) which Christs power can overcome! Other factors: heredity, adult experiences, and the body/brain. (Cf. Ed Welch, Blame It On the Brain?)


4. 这些因素包括整个宇宙﹕(一)人的身体;(二)灵界(魔鬼邪灵);(三)物质世界;(四)人的灵魂(属灵、行为因素)。一切都由上帝的护理掌管。

These factors are as wide as the universe, which includes: (a) mans body; (b) the spiritual realm (of Satan and the demons); (c) the physical universe; and (d) mans soul (spiritual = behavioral factors). All are under Gods sovereign control (under his providence).


5. 我们应该如何研究这些因素?我们必须顺服上帝的普遍启示与《圣经》启示,来建立我们的方法论。(参﹕范泰尔的著作;中华展望护教学讲义与录音。)我们手上既然有《圣经》的全部(66卷),我们必须顺服《圣经》来研究(一)我们的身体,(二)我们的灵魂(信仰,行为),(三)物质世界,(四)人类,(五)灵界;和(当然)(六)我们对上帝的认识。即是﹕《圣经》在(一)信仰,(二)生活,(三)历史,(四科学的事上,都是无谬,无误,我们绝对最高的权威。

But how should we study all these factors? We must build our method based on obedience to both general revelation and special revelation (the Bible). (Cf. Cornelius Van Tils works, www.reformed.org. Also: China Horizons apologetics lecture notes and audio.) Since we do have 66 books of the Bible in our hands, we must submit to the Bible as the highest authority for our study of (a) our bodies, (b) our souls, (c) the physical universe, (d) mankind, and (e) the spiritual realm and of course, in our knowledge of God himself. I.e.: the Bible is inerrant, infallible and our highest authority in matters of (a) faith, (b) conduct, (c) history, and (d) science. (Cf. Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy, 1978; John M. Frame, The Doctrine of the Knowledge of God.)



V. 普遍启示与心理学

1. 「普遍启示」是指什么?《罗马书》1201918;《诗篇》191-4。上帝在一人心(思想)中和(二)受造之物已经自我启示,清清楚楚,叫人无可推诿。

What is general revelation? Romans 1:20, 19, 18. Psalm 19:1-4. God has revealed himself to all mankind: (a) in the human mind/heart, and (b) through the created universe. He reveals himself clearly, so that man is without excuse.


2. 人在心灵的深处压抑、阻挡这启示,虽然他知道上帝是创造主,理当敬畏祂。

Man knows deep down in his soul that God is the Creator and Lord of the universe; but man suppresses this revelation.


3. 「普遍启示」的目的不是教导人如何得永生,而是叫他无可推诿,应当敬畏上帝。

The purpose of general revelation is not to teach man how he can have eternal life, but to make him without excuse to acknowledge, obey and worship God.


4. 一切的文化﹕哲学,心理学,艺术,科学,宗教等,都是(有罪的)人类对上帝普遍启示的回应。文化不是启示!连脚印(影子)都不是!

All culture” – philosophy, psychology, art, science, and religion, etc. is the response by (sinful) men and women to Gods general revelation. Culture is not revelation! Not even a footprint/shadow of it!


5. 上帝的普遍启示是从上而下的,从上帝而来(罗118-20),是「无言无语,也无声音可听」(诗19)。人对普遍启示的回应(包括心理学)是从下而上的;从人发出。两者不可混为一谈!

Gods general revelation is top-down; it comes from God (Rom. 1:18-20). It is without words (Psalm 19). Mans response to revelation (culture, which includes psychology) is bottom-up; it comes from man. The two are not the same!


6. 人类既已堕落,这回应(文化)就在核心坚持人的自主,坚持「一元论」,就是保罗所称的「世上的小学」。世俗的文化(包括心理学)必然与上帝的启示斗争。

Since mankind has fallen, this response is what Paul calls the elementary things of this world. It is committed to autonomy of man, and to monism. Secular culture (including psychology) inevitably battles against Gods Word.


7. 称心理学的研究成果(或哲学)为「普遍启示」是重要的错误。(例如﹕Gary Collins。)

It is a major error to say that the insights of psychology (and philosophy, etc.) are general revelation (e.g. Gary Collins).



VI. 人的道德责任(自由意志,人是道德责任者)


1. 世俗心理学其中一项重要错误(异端),是把人基本上(甚至只)视为受害者。所谓「基督教辅导」极力推行此观念。这样,人的责任就消除;同时人的尊严,和改变生命(解决问题)的盼望也泡汤。美国刺杀甘乃迪总统(19631122日)的被告者,被心理学家解释为是家庭伤害的受害者。在邮包中寄炸弹的被告者同样被解释为家庭的受害者。这样,社会秩序也瓦解。今天美国人口的百分之一是监犯。(2008年三月的报导。)

A major error/heresy of secular psychology (which so-called Christian counseling has borrowed enthusiastically), is to treat man fundamentally (only) as a victim. This takes away responsibility from the counselee, therefore it takes away dignity, and it takes away hope to change ones life (to solve ones problem). In the United States, famous criminals e.g. Lee Oswald (who assassinated John F. Kennedy) and the Unabomber, have been analyzed by psychologists as having been injured by family members, early in their lives. This explains their criminal behavior. This takes away hope for social order! 1% of the USA population is in prison today (March 2008).


2. 上帝创造人时,给人一个」意志「。有人喜欢称此为「自由意志」,有些神学家称它为「道德责任性」。上帝造人作一位有限的被造物,因此人的自由是有限的。

God created man with a will. Some prefer to call it free will; others call this mans moral agency. God created man as a finite being, therefore his freedom is finite (limited).


3. 《创世记》第二章教导﹕无限的上帝创造了有限的人,赐人有限的、可是真的自由选择。这自由选择附有道德责任;人必须为自己一切思想行为承担后果。上帝在一个特定的处境里赐人此「选择兼责任」﹕在此处境,上帝已创造了一切,也向人晓谕;上帝已向人讲解祂的旨意和吩咐。

Genesis chapter 2 teaches that: An infinite God created finite man, and gave him finite, but real free choice. This choice comes with moral responsibility; man must bear all consequences of his thoughts and actions. God gave this freedom-plus-responsibility to man in a context (place) in which he has created all things, and he has spoken to man (he has given man his will and his commands).


4. 人为自己的一切行为负责。人不应只问﹕「谁伤害过我?」而要问﹕「我伤害过谁?」还有﹕「我如何回应别人在我身上造成的伤害?我的回应有罪吗?」我们须为自己的回应负责。

Man is responsible for his actions. He should not only ask: Who has injured me? He needs to ask: Whom have I injured?” “How did I respond to other peoples injuring me? Did I respond in a sinful way? We are responsible for our responses.


5. 人是「从内心发出」一切思想、行为的。这就是说人有「意志」的意思。可是人的心堕落了,非常邪恶。人须要换一个心,取得新心,才有能力遵从上帝的吩咐来回应别人的行为(对自己的伤害,等)。

Man acts out of his heart. This is what we mean when we say that man has a will. But mans heart is fallen and utterly wicked. Man needs his heart to be changed in order to act, to respond to other peoples actions (e.g. hurts against myself), in the way which God has commanded.



VII. 从《圣经》看家庭


1. 上帝在创造世界时设立了三个制度﹕婚姻家庭;工作文化,与安息敬拜。因此,人还没有犯罪之前,家庭制度就存在了。

God established the family as one of 3 institutions when he created the world. (The other 2 are: work/culture, and rest/worship.) Therefore, the family existed as an institution ordained by God before man sinned.


2. 上帝的旨意是﹕家庭是祂立约的对象,是「约民」的基本单位。约里的人,都是个人,也是家庭的成员,都应顺服,敬拜,记敬畏,爱上帝。上帝的律法(话语),应该在家庭中宣讲,教导。(单身的应被包括在教会的众家庭和大家庭里。)

God intends the family to be a covenant unit. Men and women, as individuals, and as family members, should obey God, worship him, fear him, and love him. The family is where Gods covenant-word (law) is to be proclaimed and taught. (Singles should be included in the several families of the church, or in the large family which is the church.)


3. 上帝在家庭里设立了权威结构。丈夫,父亲应该带领家人顺服,敬畏,敬拜,爱上帝。

God has also established authority structures in the family. The husband/father is to lead the family to obey, fear, worship, and love God.


4. 上帝愿意赐福给信徒的家庭(旧约,新约时期都是如此)。在上帝的约中有一些咒诅(特别限制在敬拜偶像的人身上)。基督来,胜过一切的罪和咒诅。

God intends to bless the families of believers, both in the Old Testament and in the New. Within this covenant structure of blessing, there are curses (especially limited to idol worship). But Christ came to triumph over sin and sins curse.


5. 我们对上帝的认识(得救),是否会因家庭的伤害有负面影响?会的,若还没有完全信靠上帝的话或圣灵在我们身上的工作的话。但若顺服上帝的话与上帝的灵,这些都能胜过,变为感恩与喜乐。

Can our knowledge of God (our salvation and sanctification) be negatively influenced by the injuries which our family members incurred on us? Yes, if we do not wholly trust Gods Word and wholly submit to the Holy Spirits work in our lives. But if we do, these can be overcome with thanksgiving and joy.


6. 世俗心理学(弗来伊德起)损害了教会与社会秩序,因往往破坏上帝话语的权威,和上帝设立的权威。

Secular psychology (beginning with Freud) has damaged church and society by tearing down the authority of Gods Word and the authority-structures which God has ordained, e.g. the authority of God Word as taught by the head of the household.


7. 世俗心理学对「性革命」作了重要的贡献,破坏婚姻的圣洁,以西方社会开始推动淫乱和同性恋;换言之,推翻上帝所设立的制度与权柄,破坏人生与人际关系。(不过我们若记得,心理学的前提包括自然主义﹕否认超自然事情;进化论﹕否认创造;相对主义﹕否认宇宙有绝对真理;和人本主义﹕否认上帝的主权,就不足为奇了。)

Secular psychology has largely contributed to the sexual revolution which destroyed the sanctity of sex in marriage, and promoted promiscuity and homosexuality, beginning with western societies. In other words, it led to the destruction of God-ordained structures of life and relationships. (This is perfectly understandable if we understand that secular psychology is based on naturalism, evolution, relativism, humanism etc.!)

 

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